Sunday, June 20, 2021

In Anticipation of Tiger

Tiger is the codename for the next major release of the Java Platform. The release number will be Java 2, version 1.5 and is expected to preview in beta form sometime in Q4 2003, going into production release by Q1 2004.

Tiger is being developed under the guidelines of the Java Community Process (JSR 176-J2SE 1.5 (Tiger) Release Contents Although the Java Specification Request currently hasn’t even released a community draft, there is enough information available from Sun executives, newsgroups, discussion forums, and the JSR to anticipate the new features and modifications that will go into the release. The final release may not include all the features discussed here and may include other features not mentioned here.

Scope of Changes

According to the JSR, it is anticipated that the Tiger release will be mainly targeted at the following major themes:

  1. Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability
  2. Monitoring and Manageability
  3. Scalability and Performance
  4. XML and Client Web Services
  5. Ease of Development

In support of these themes, Tiger will introduce language and syntax modifications, additions to the core library APIs, and a number of bug fixes and optimizations. Let’s take a look at each of these themes in detail

Theme 1: Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability

The maturity, popularity, growing support, and availability of tools for the Java platform has resulted in deployment of Java-based, mission-critical enterprise applications. Mission-critical applications need to be deterministic, highly reliable, and highly available. In event of an outage, mission-critical applications need to be debugged, serviced (preferably self healed), and fixed immediately. In response to this need, Tiger plans to make several fixes and optimizations to the client and server Java runtimes that will improve reliability and availability of the platform. It also plans to include two new APIs that relate to this theme.

  • A new Java Platform Profiling Architecture

    Platform profiling is the ability to extract usage statistics of a running JVM. Metrics include memory usage, CPU usage, object references, and so forth. There is an experimental interface—the Java Virtual Machine Profiling Interface (JVMPI)—that suffers from a number of design flaws, scalability issues, sizeable overhead, and imprecise profiling. The new profiling architecture intends to non-compatibly supercede JVMPI, but provide similar yet enhanced functionality. These APIs will allow inter-operability of profiling and advanced garbage collection technologies. The APIs will allow reliable implementation on the widest range of virtual machines, part of which will be achieved by grouping functionality into optional sets. Queries for which optional capabilities are supported will be provided. The APIs will be targeted to provide a Java programming language model of execution, however, some aspects of the virtual machine, native, and operating system models may be directly provided or provided via an extension mechanism. The APIs will accommodate implementations that can dynamically enable and disable profiling; and thus will allow implementations that have a negligible performance impact when profiling is disabled. While profiling in the application development phase will be the primary goal of this specification, the design objectives for low performance overhead and data perturbation will also support profiling in the deployment phase.

  • Application Isolation API Specification

    When running multiple Java applications on the same box, the negative effects of large initial footprint, large increments of memory required by additional applications, and long startup latencies are hurting Java’s ability to compete with more nimble and efficient language systems and bring into doubt the prospects for scalability. Currently, ad hoc script and native code mechanisms for controlling and load balancing multiple Java virtual machines in server settings hurt portability, maintainability, and robustness. This API provides a uniform mechanism for managing Java application life cycles that are isolated from each other with respect to object reachability, but that can potentially share underlying implementation resources. It provides a means of deploying new Java implementation features that enable and enhance scalability while providing an alternative to ad hoc control schemes for multiple Java applications running on the same box. The implementation of this feature will guarantee isolation of Java state (for example, logically disjoint heap spaces, per application mutable static fields, and so on), and maybe separation of the JNI state and separation of the process state. Inclusion of this API will make it easier to run multiple Java applications on the same box without having to worry about Operating System resources consumed by multiple copies of the JVM in memory. This has a direct impact on reliability and availability.

Along with some more features discussed below, the Java community should expect significant strides in reliability and scalability of the Java platform with the release of Tiger.

Theme 2: Monitoring and Manageability

Along with the wide scale deployment of Java mission-critical applications comes the need for a consistent, standard mechanism to monitor the state of the Java application and its associated Virtual Machine. There is also a need to modify the application’s state and runtime characteristics, without having to restart the application. Currently, applications tend to use home-grown libraries and applications to achieve the required functionality. Tiger plans to bundle a set of APIs to allow end-to-end management and monitoring of Java-based resources.

  • Monitoring and Management for the Java Virtual Machine

    These APIs will provide Java applications, system management tools, and RAS-related tools with the ability to monitor the health of the Java virtual machine as well as manage certain runtime controls such as class loading, memory, and garbage collection statistics, thread statistics, object references and state, operating system, and platform information. It will also provide control for JIT compilation, thread creation, garbage collector operation, and heap allocation. It will support JMX invocation and its feature set and implementation will be developed to in synergy with the new platform profiling architecture.

  • Java Management Extensions

    Java Management Extensions (JMX) is an existing technology that is currently being used by a variety of applications (for example, JBoss application server uses a JMX-enabled core for its management). These extensions define an architecture, the design patterns, the APIs, and the services for application and network management and monitoring in the Java programming language. JMX provides Java developers with the means to instrument Java code, create smart Java agents, implement distributed management middleware and managers, and smoothly integrate these solutions into existing management and monitoring systems. In addition, JMX is referenced by a number of Java APIs for existing standard management and monitoring technologies. Making JMX part of the standard Java platform answers the community’s need for a way to manage and monitor Java-based applications.

The introduction of these management and monitoring capabilities, along with the platform profiling architecture, allows for comprehensive debugging of Java applications delivering a significant boost to the development of more optimized, robust, reliable, and scalable applications.

Theme 3: Scalability and Performance

There is no such thing as too fast and too scalable. There intend to be a number of bug fixes and performance improvements to the Java runtime (both client and server). The following changes will also aid in improving the performance:

  • Fixes and speedups in garbage collection
  • Reduced VM startup time
  • Reduced memory footprint
  • Further HotSpot VM tuning
  • Application Isolation API will make a single VM scalable to multiple applications without requiring the instantiation of a new VM process.
  • Additional new I/O capabilities for files to support bulk access to file attributes, the addition of asynchronous I/O for network socketsn and files and formatted I/O such as printf.

There is always the need for speed and this release intends to be the fastest Java ever.

Theme 4: XML and Client Web Services

The seeming ubiquity of XML and Web Services has made it imperative for the standard Java platform to support it. Currently, Java 1.4 has a bundled XML parser, related XML data structure libraries, and XML processing libraries. Java 1.5 intends to increase the number of XML and Web Services APIs in the standard platform by adding some libraries currently available in the Sun Web Services Developer Pack (WSDP). In particular, Tiger is anticipated to bundle:

  • An update to the XML parsing APIs (JAXP) to support XML Schemas
  • Java API for XML Binding (JAXP), which is a facility for compiling an XML schema into one or more Java classes which can parse, generate, and validate documents that adhere to the schema
  • Support for XML Remote Procedure Calls API (JAX-RPC)
  • XML Digital Signatures APIs
  • XML Digital Encryption APIs
  • Optimizations and performance improvements to the existing XML libraries
  • Web Services Client support

As XML and Web Services evolve at a rapid pace, the Tiger release hopes to make Java a natural choice for applications using this technology.

Theme 5: Ease of Development

The Java language and syntax are being enhanced to make code more readable, expressive, comact, safer, and easier to develop, without sacrificing compatibility. These new language features are being incorporated after several years of discussion and comparison of Java to other programming languages. These features are the most anticipated amongst the Tiger release contents and have spawned numerous threads of discussion within the developer community. The changes will come in the form of class file format changes, generic (a.k.a. parameterized types like C++ templates) support, a ‘foreach’ type of looping construct, automatic conversion between primitive, and corresponding object data types, type-safe enums, an improved syntax for using static constants, and the use of metadata tags which allow the developer to insert simple declarative tags in the source code for which the compiler generates the necessary boilerplate code.

These changes will have an impact on the way developers write Java programs. Taking advantage of these changes will require the developer to learn new language features, new syntax, and must become part of the developer’s arsenal. Let’s look deeper into each of these new features.

  • Class File Format Changes

    These changes will modify and extend the Java Class File format to support updates to the Java platform and language specifications. The changes will add support for quicker and more efficient byte code verification, class literal support directly from the class file format, and will increase certain implicit size limits within the class file. These changes will be transparent to the application developer. No code changes would be required for existing codebases.

  • Support for Generics

    Generic support is the ability to specify a particular type of object used in a collection, rather than default to using the Object type for generic behaviour. These notions of genericity are based on parametric polymorphism. These concepts are best explained with an example illustrating the benefits and syntax changes.

    Let’s say you have a method that prints all the Strings in the collection passed to it in lower case.

    * Print all the Strings in the Collection in lower case.
      public void printLowerCase(Collection c) {
    Iterator iter = c.iterator();
    while(iter.hasNext()) {
      String str = (String);

    The things to notice here are that an explicit cast to String is required when iterating through the Collection. This is error prone. If a programmer inadvertently passes a collection of any other type, this method would compile fine, only to blow up at runtime with a ClassCastException. The precondition for this code to correctly execute is that the Collection must contain Strings. This fact is not explicit from the method signature, but rather is expressed in the documentation for the method.

    Generics provide the way to avoid casting by binding generic collections to specifc types at compile time rather than runtime. The same method above written using generics would be:

    * Print all the Collection Strings in lower case.
      public void printLowerCase(Collection c) {
    Iterator iter = c.iterator();
    while(iter.hasNext()) {
      String str =;

    Here, we explicity specify what type of Objects the Collection will contain, thereby eliminating the need for casting. The programmer’s intent is now absolutely clear and is part of the method signature rather than the documentation. If a programmer inadvertently passes a collection of any other type, this method would not even compile. This eliminates runtime ClassCastExceptions altogether and provides compile-time type safety.

    Generics will improve code readability, expressiveness, and provide safety against runtime exceptions.

  • The ‘foreach’ type of construct: Tiger plans to introduce an additional for loop syntax with similar capability as the ‘foreach’ looping construct found in so many other languages. This addition is mainly to increase developer productivity and reduce the amount of code required to iterate through loops.

    Let’s say you have to loop through a Collection of Strings. Currently, you may achieve the loop by using a while statement or a for statement, as illustrated below:

    Collection c;
    Iterator i = collection.iterator();
    while(i.hasNext()) {
      // Process element
    for(Iterator i = c.iterator; i.hasNext() ; ) {
      // Process element.

    Both these constructs require the creation of an Iterator object and explicit specification on how to iterate through the collection, by using the hasNext() method.

    The ‘enhanced for’ construct makes the code look like:

    Collection c;
    for( Object o : c ) {
      //Process element

    This reads as ‘for each Object o in Collection c’. Combined with generics support, this could be:

    Collection c;
    for( String o : c) {
      //Process element

    The ‘foreach’ type construct eliminates the need for Iterator creation and delegates all details of how to iterate through the collection to the compiler. It also reduces the amount of code required to iterate through collections.

  • Automatic conversion between primitive types and corresponding object types: Java has a ‘split type’ system, which means there is a difference in the way primitive types and object types are handled. This forces the programmer to perform manual conversions between primitive types and corresponding object types in code.

    If you would like to add a primitive int to an Integer object, you would have to do:

    int i;
    Integer j;
    int k = i + j.intValue();
    Integer kObj = new Integer(k);

    In Tiger, the conversion between primitive types and their corresponding Object type will be automatic. This feature is also referred to as ‘autoboxing of primitives’.

    The code is now as easy as:

    int i;
    Integer j;
    int k = i + j;
    Integer kObj = i + j;

    This feature almost removes all distinction between primitive types and corresponding object types for the programmer. It further allows the addition of primitive types to Collections, so this

    Collection c;
    int i;
    c.add(new Integer(i));


  • Typesafe enums: An enum is a bounded set of distinct values that a particular object can take. They are similar to a grouping of constants representing all permissible values for a particular object. Tiger intends to add language-level support for the typesafe enum pattern. This pattern is best described by an example:
     * A type safe enum repesenting the states of a traffic
     * light
    public class TrafficSignal {
    Clients should not be able to instantiate. This
    object can only take on a fixed set of values.
      private TrafficSignal() { }
      String color;
      private static final TrafficSignal GREEN =
      new TrafficSignal("GREEN");
      private static final TrafficSignal YELLOW =
      new TrafficSignal("YELLOW");
      private static final TrafficSignal RED =
      new TrafficSignal("RED");
      public boolean equals(Object o) {
    if(o.getClass() != getClass())
    TrafficSignal signal = (TrafficSignal)o;
    return(signal.color == color);

    and use it as:

    TrafficSignal signal;

    In Tiger, language-level support for this pattern will be provided, thereby reducing the code to look like:

    public enum TrafficSignal {
      private String color;
      TrafficSignal(String color) { this.color = color }

    and use it as:

    TrafficSignal signal;
    if(signal == TrafficSignal.GREEN))

    You could even use these enums in switch statements, like this:

    TrafficSignal signal;
    switch(signal) {
      case TrafficSignal.RED: stop();
      case TrafficSignal.YELLOW: slowDown();
      case TrafficSignal.GREEN: go();
      default: slowDown();

    Because the typesafe enum type is just like a class, we could add methods and fields and even use them in collections.

  • Improved syntax for using static constants: To use constants in Java, the programmer must either fully qualify the constant reference or implement an interface defining the constants. Consider an example of what is described as the ‘Constants Antipattern’:
    public interface Constants {
      public static final int DAYS_IN_WEEK = 7;
      public static final int DAYS_IN_YEAR = 365;

    To use these constants, the programmer must either fully qualify the constant reference:

    int weeks_in_year =

    or implement the interface:

    public class Year implements Constants {
      int weeks_in_year = DAYS_IN_YEAR/DAYS_IN_WEEK;

    Tiger intends to introduce a ‘static import’ facility that allows for referencing of static constants without implementing the interface or prefixing the class name of the defining class.

    import static Constants;
    public class Year {
      int weeks_in_year = DAYS_IN_YEAR/DAYS_IN_WEEK;

    The import statement will make all static members of the Constants class available to the Year class. This compact syntax provides the benefits of not having to fully qualify the constant reference and overcomes the disadvantages of implementing an interface.

  • Metadata facility to annotate source code: Programmers writing EJBs and RMI-based apps need to define a lot of boilerplate code to implement their objects. For example, to implement a Remote object (in the RMI sense), a programmer must define the interface.
    package service;
    import java.rmi.Remote;
    import java.rmi.RemoteException;
    public interface ServiceRunner extends Remote {
    Object executeService(Service s) throws RemoteException;

    and define the implementation of the remote interface:

    package servicerunner;
    import java.rmi.*;
    import java.rmi.server.*;
    public class ServiceRunnerImpl extends UnicastRemoteObject
      implements ServiceRunner
    public Object executeService(Service t) {

    Using Tiger’s metadata facility would allow the programmer to write code using tags that instruct the compiler to generate the necessary boilerplate code for the remote interface:

    public class ServiceRunner { 
    @Remote public Object executeService(Service t) {

    This also annotates the source code by marking it to have certain characteristics.

    There is still much discussion about this feature, its implementation, extent, and scope. More details on this will be available as we come closer to the release date.


As you can see, this release is going to be a big one, especially with respect to language changes. Overall, with the introduction of these changes and additional APIs will come with some amount of learning curve but will make Java more developer friendly and easier to work with. The language changes widen Java’s reach to cross-language developers. The performance enhancements will make this Java the fastest one ever. The focus on XML and Web Services makes Java a language of choice for modern network programming paradigms. This release will strengthen the mind-share and further increase the popularity of the platform.


About the Author

Apu Shah, a Java developer and avid follower of breaking Java trends since 1995, also writes a biweekly column on the events of the JCP on If you have any thoughts on these features or would you like to see other features in Tiger, feel free to contact him at [email protected].

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