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What is Factor Analysis? Definition, Types and Examples

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Factor analysis is a powerful statistical technique used by data professionals in various business domains to uncover underlying data structures or latent variables. Factor analysis is sometimes confused with Fact Analysis of Information Risk, or FAIR, but they are not the same—factor analysis encompasses statistical methods for data reduction and identifying underlying patterns in various fields, while FAIR is a specific framework and methodology used for analyzing and quantifying information security and cybersecurity risks.

This article examines factor analysis and its role in business, explores its definitions, various types, and provides real-world examples to illustrate its applications and benefits. With a clear understanding of what factor analysis is and how it works, you’ll be well-equipped to leverage this essential data analysis tool in making connections in your data for strategic decision-making.

The Importance of Factor Analysis

In data science, factor analysis enables the identification of extra-dimensionality and hidden patterns in data and can be used to simplify data to select relevant variables for analysis.

Finding Hidden Patterns and Identifying Extra-Dimensionality 

A primary purpose of factor analysis is dataset dimensionality reduction. This is accomplished by identifying latent variables, known as factors, that explain the common variance in a set of observed variables.

In essence, it helps data professionals sift through a large amount of data and extract the key dimensions that underlie the complexity. Factor analysis also allows data professionals to uncover hidden patterns or relationships within data, revealing the underlying structure that might not be apparent when looking at individual variables in isolation.

Simplifying Data and Selecting Variables

Factor analysis simplifies data interpretation. Instead of dealing with a multitude of variables, researchers can work with a smaller set of factors that capture the essential information. This simplification aids in creating more concise models and facilitates clearer communication of research findings.

Data professionals working with large datasets must routinely select a subset of variables most relevant or representative of the phenomenon under analysis or investigation. Factor analysis helps in this process by identifying the key variables that contribute to the factors, which can be used for further analysis.

How Does Factor Analysis Work? 

Factor analysis is based on the idea that the observed variables in a dataset can be represented as linear combinations of a smaller number of unobserved, underlying factors. These factors are not directly measurable but are inferred from the patterns of correlations or covariances among the observed variables. Factor analysis typically consists of several fundamental steps.

1. Data Collection

The first step in factor analysis involves collecting data on a set of variables. These variables should be related in some way, and it’s assumed that they are influenced by a smaller number of underlying factors.

2. Covariance/Correlation Matrix

The next step is to compute the correlation matrix (if working with standardized variables) or covariance matrix (if working with non-standardized variables). These matrices help quantify the relationships between all pairs of variables, providing a basis for subsequent factor analysis steps.

Covariance Matrix

A covariance matrix is a mathematical construct that plays a critical role in statistics and multivariate analysis, particularly in the fields of linear algebra and probability theory. It provides a concise representation of the relationships between pairs of variables within a dataset.

Specifically, a covariance matrix is a square matrix in which each entry represents the covariance between two corresponding variables. Covariance measures how two variables change together; a positive covariance indicates that they tend to increase or decrease together, while a negative covariance suggests they move in opposite directions.

A covariance matrix is symmetric, meaning that the covariance between variable X and variable Y is the same as the covariance between Y and X. Additionally, the diagonal entries of the matrix represent the variances of individual variables, as the covariance of a variable with itself is its variance.

Correlation Matrix

A correlation matrix is a statistical tool used to quantify and represent the relationships between pairs of variables in a dataset. Unlike the covariance matrix, which measures the co-variability of variables, a correlation matrix standardizes this measure to a range between -1 and 1, providing a dimensionless value that indicates the strength and direction of the linear relationship between variables.

A correlation of 1 indicates a perfect positive linear relationship, while -1 signifies a perfect negative linear relationship. A correlation of 0 suggests no linear relationship. The diagonal of the correlation matrix always contains ones because each variable is perfectly correlated with itself.

Correlation matrices are particularly valuable for identifying and understanding the degree of association between variables, helping to reveal patterns and dependencies that might not be immediately apparent in raw data.

3. Factor Extraction

Factor extraction involves identifying the underlying factors that explain the common variance in the dataset. Various methods are used for factor extraction, including principal component analysis (PCA) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). These methods seek to identify the linear combinations of variables that capture the most variance in the data.


PCA is a dimensionality reduction and data transformation technique used in statistics, machine learning, and data analysis. Its primary goal is to simplify complex, high-dimensional data while preserving as much relevant information as possible.

PCA accomplishes this by identifying and extracting a set of orthogonal axes, known as principal components, that capture the maximum variance in the data. These principal components are linear combinations of the original variables and are ordered in terms of the amount of variance they explain, with the first component explaining the most variance, the second component explaining the second most, and so on. By projecting the data onto these principal components, you can reduce the dimensionality of the data while minimizing information loss.

As a powerful way to condense and simplify data, PCA is an invaluable tool for improving data interpretation and modeling efficiency, and is widely used for various purposes, including data visualization, noise reduction, and feature selection. It is particularly valuable in exploratory data analysis, where it helps researchers uncover underlying patterns and structures in high-dimensional datasets. In addition to dimensionality reduction, PCA can also aid in removing multicollinearity among variables, which is beneficial in regression analysis.


MLE is a fundamental statistical method used to estimate the parameters of a statistical model. The core premise behind MLE is to find the parameter values that maximize the likelihood function, which measures how well the model explains the observed data. In other words, MLE seeks to identify the parameter values that make the observed data the most probable under the assumed statistical model.

To perform MLE, one typically starts with a probability distribution or statistical model that relates the parameters to the observed data. The likelihood function is then constructed based on this model, and it quantifies the probability of observing the given data for different parameter values. MLE involves finding the values of the parameters that maximize this likelihood function.

In practice, this is often achieved through numerical optimization techniques, such as gradient descent or the Newton-Raphson method. MLE is highly regarded for its desirable properties, such as asymptotic efficiency and consistency, making it a widely used and respected method for parameter estimation in statistical modeling and data analysis.

4. Factor Rotation

Once factors are extracted, they are often rotated to achieve a simpler, more interpretable factor structure. Rotation methods like Varimax and Promax aim to make the factors more orthogonal or uncorrelated, which enhances their interpretability.

Varimax rotation.
Varimax rotation. Source:

5. Factor Loadings

Factor loadings represent the strength and direction of the relationship between each variable and the underlying factors. These loadings indicate how much each variable contributes to a given factor and are used to interpret and label the factors.

6. Interpretation

The final step of factor analysis involves interpreting the factors and assigning meaning to them. Data professionals examine the factor loadings and consider the variables that are most strongly associated with each factor. This interpretation is a critical aspect of factor analysis, as it helps in understanding the latent structure of the data.

Types of Factor Analysis

Factor analysis comes in several variations, depending on the assumptions and constraints applied to the analysis. The two primary types are exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)

EFA is used to explore and uncover the underlying structure of data. It is an open-ended approach that does not impose any specific structure on the factors. Instead, it allows the factors to emerge from the data. EFA is often used in the early stages of research when there is little prior knowledge about the relationships between variables.

Path diagram of an orthogonal two-factor EFA solution.
Path diagram of an orthogonal two-factor EFA solution. Source:

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

CFA, on the other hand, is a more hypothesis-driven approach—it starts with a predefined factor structure. The data is then tested to see if it fits that structure. This type of analysis is used when there is a theoretical model or prior knowledge about the expected relationships between variables and factors.

Benefits of Factor Analysis

Factor analysis offers several advantages to data professionals working a wide range of business/enterprise settings:

  • Data reduction and enhanced interpretability. By reducing the dimensionality of data, you can more easily analyze and interpret complex datasets. This results in enhanced data interpretation and explainability—by identifying latent factors, factor analysis provides a more meaningful interpretation of the relationships among variables, making it easier to understand complex phenomena.
  • Multivariable selection and analysis. Factor analysis aids in variable selection by identifying the most important variables that contribute to the factors. This is especially valuable when working with large datasets. Crucially, factor analysis is a form of multivariate analysis, which is essential in use cases that require examining relationships between multiple variables simultaneously.

Factor Analysis Examples

Organizations can use factor analysis in a wide range of applications to identify underlying factors or latent variables that explain patterns in data.

Market Research

Market researchers often use factor analysis to identify the key factors that influence consumer preferences. For example, a survey may collect data on various product attributes like price, brand reputation, quality, and customer service. Factor analysis can help determine which factors have the most significant impact on consumers’ product choices. By identifying underlying factors, businesses can tailor their product development and marketing strategies to meet consumer needs more effectively.

Financial Risk Analysis

Factor analysis is commonly used in finance to analyze and manage financial risk. By examining various economic indicators, asset returns, and market conditions, factor analysis helps investors and portfolio managers understand how different factors contribute to the overall risk and return of an investment portfolio.

Customer Segmentation

Businesses often use factor analysis to identify customer segments based on their purchasing behavior, preferences, and demographic information. By analyzing these factors, companies can create better targeted marketing strategies and product offerings.

Employee Engagement

Factor analysis can be used to identify the underlying factors that contribute to employee engagement and job satisfaction. This information helps businesses improve workplace conditions and increase employee retention.

Brand Perception

Companies may employ factor analysis to understand how customers perceive their brand. By analyzing factors like brand image, trust, and quality, businesses can make informed decisions to strengthen their brand and reputation.

Product Quality Controls

In manufacturing, factor analysis can help identify the key factors affecting product quality. This analysis can lead to process improvements and quality control measures, ultimately reducing defects and enhancing customer satisfaction.

These examples are just a handful of use cases that demonstrate how factor analysis can be applied in business. As a versatile statistical tool, it can be adapted to various data-driven decision-making processes for helping organizations gain deeper insights and make informed choices.

Factor Analysis vs. FAIR

Factor analysis is different from Fact Analysis of Information Risk, or FAIR. Factor analysis encompasses statistical methods for data reduction and identifying underlying patterns in various fields, while FAIR is a specific framework and methodology used for analyzing and quantifying information security and cybersecurity risks. Unlike traditional factor analysis, which deals strictly with data patterns, FAIR focuses specifically on information and cyber risk factors to help organizations prioritize and manage their cybersecurity efforts effectively.

Bottom Line

With factor analysis in their cachet of tools, data professionals and business researchers have a powerful and battle-tested statistical technique for simplifying data, identifying latent structures, and understanding complex relationships among variables. Through these discoveries, organizations can better explain observed relationships among a set of variables by reducing complex data into a more manageable form, making it easier to understand, interpret, and draw meaningful conclusions.

Read Top 7 Data Analytics Tools to learn about the best enterprise software to help analyze and visualize data.

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