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How One City Slashed its Support Costs

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Companies looking to cut their IT costs need to look beyond initial

outlays and take a hard look at their support costs.

CIOs and administrators, for instance, might not notice how much it costs

to support remote workers. Sending a technician to an offsite location

can get expensive, as can dealing with a remote worker repeatedly over

the phone or having equipment shipped back and forth between the remote

and centralized office. Desktop emulators and remote diagnostic tools

help, but don’t eliminate the problem.

One approach to reducing support is to switch to network-centric

computing. Rather than providing end users with complete workstations,

give them thin client devices.

From a hardware viewpoint, this eliminates all the disk drives sitting

under employees’ desks and moves them into the data center. You no longer

have to continually deploy all the software patches and virus signature

updates, run backups and virus scans or defragment the drives.

So far, this idea hasn’t really caught on, though, there have been some

major deployments. Hitachi Ltd., for example, announced this past May

that it was moving 16,000 of its employees to thin clients as a means of

improving security.

The overall market for thin clients, however, according to IDC, an

industry analyst firm based in Framingham, Mass., is only about 3 percent

of the number of standard corporate workstations.

Eliminating Server Costs

Even without switching to thin clients, companies still can reduce their

remote support load by eliminating local file and print servers.

Bergen, the second largest city in Norway, took this very same approach.

While IT administrators for the city still use fat clients for its 50,000

users, they have replaced 100 servers in its schools with a set of blade

servers in the data center.

”The process has been very smooth, even better than we expected,” says

Chief Technology Officer Ole-Bjorn Tuftedal.

The City of Bergen has a population of 250,000. The city’s IT staff

services municipal government employees, eGov applications for its

citizens and an educational network for 32,000 students and 4,000

teachers. It also supports 10,500 PCs — 7,000 for city employees and

3,500 for students. The city network links 450 locations — 125 of them

via 100Mbps or 1Gbps fibre, and the rest via 1Mbps to 2Mbps ADSL

connections. It also hosts services for some of the smaller communities

in the region that don’t have their own IT departments.

The educational network had at least one file/print/communications server

running Windows NT at each of the city’s 100 schools, and a central team

of server specialists visited any location experiencing server problems

— a frequent occurrence. Designed and implemented in 1996, the aging

network simply became too expensive to maintain.

”Disk, fan and power supply failures were common and system corruption

by viruses and other problems meant engineers were faced with an

ever-increasing workload,” says Tuftedal. ”We had an amazing range of

software versions and disk images, and a constant demand for human


Rather than install new hardware on the same architecture, the city

seized the opportunity to design something better. Tuftedal said he had

four goals for the project: reducing high server costs caused by the high

number of decentralized servers; improve security; simplify

administration of clients and servers; and improve the user environment.

The job involved more than just replacing the servers, though. The city

also decided to migrate to a Linux operating system.

”The city parliament decided in 2001 to consider using Linux and open

source software for all new projects,” Tuftedal explains. ”We have

found Linux to be viable as an enterprise operating system in every


The particular advantages, he says, are greater freedom of choice, lower

costs because of vendor independence and ease of management.

”It has a multi-user architecture from top to bottom, whereas Windows

has its roots as a single-user operating system,” says Tuftedal. ”Linux

has higher stability, less downtime, scales better and has better


The remote servers themselves were replaced with 20 IBM HS20 blade

servers. They chose IBM blades because they were the only ones available

which had the full-server architecture on the blades. According to

Tuftedal, other vendors were using a mobile PC architecture for their

blades. To further simplify support, he ordered the blades without hard


”The servers themselves have no moving parts at all,” he says. ”All

the things that typically fail in servers — the fans, the disks, the

power units — are components for the whole blade enclosure, they are

redundant, and you can change parts on the fly.”

Since they don’t have their own hard drives, they boot off the IBM

TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server SAN, and all storage resides on

the SAN. They have a 1GB Ethernet connection to the SAN and can switch to

Fibre Channel if they need a faster connection. But even with Ethernet,

he says, they can get the data faster than if they had onboard SCSI


Beating Expectations

Bergen’s IT professionals began switching the schools’ system to the new

datacenter servers last fall, migrating one location per day. By the end

of the year, it had migrated all the schools which had fibre connections.

The ones with ADSL took a bit longer since those required the use of thin

clients because of a lack of bandwidth. The new blade servers host file,

print, email, DNS, DHCP, a Samba server, OpenLDAP and Web services. They

also can accommodate up to 6,000 concurrent users.

With the new system in place, users can log in on any computer at any

school and always have their own desktop settings. The new system also

has beaten the financial goals initially set out for it.

”When we made the designs for our school network we did two models —

one using Microsoft and one using Linux,” says Tuftedal. ”In our design

and test phase, we saw a 30 percent hardware savings on the same blades,

running the same jobs. In practice, those figures have been fulfilled and

even bettered.”

And that doesn’t include the cost of sending out IT staff on freezing

winter days, when the sun doesn’t show its face till nearly 10 a.m. and

is gone by mid-afternoon.

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