As Wi-Fi--and laptops and mobile devices--become more ubiquitous, users from kids to adults find themselves suffering from injuries ranging from carpel tunnel syndrome to "BlackBerry thumb." The first in a series of features and reviews on the ergonomics of Wi-Fi-induced mobility, this article offers tips on how to prevent injuries.
As publicly accessible Wi-Fi access points come to more and more coffee shops, libraries, and other venues, people are using laptops in environments that compromise comfort and often precipitate pain. That's because on a notebook computer, the monitor and keyboard can't be independently positioned.
"That insists that you crane your neck to see the screen," says Lenore Bryck, a pain-relief and massage therapist in Amherst, Massachusetts who works with clients suffering from chronic pain and repetitive strain injuries. But if you elevate your laptop so the screen is at an appropriate height for your neck, you've moved it out of the comfort zone for typing.
"And then you've got the whole gamut of injuries to your wrists and hands," Bryck says, which aren't so different from the problems a person can have with an improperly arranged desktop computer, but they tend to be worse. Carpal tunnel syndrome, in which several fingers can feel numb because the nerve leading to them gets inhibited, is a well-known problem, but pain can range from the fingertips through the arms, shoulders, neck, and back due to the combination of poor keyboard and monitor placement.
In 2006, the most recent year for which the US Bureau of Labor Statistics has data, there were 13,010 reported workplace incidences of carpal tunnel syndrome. Although the data don't track how workers got carpal tunnel syndrome, computer use is likely a significant cause. Carpal tunnel syndrome accounted for 3.6 percent of all workplace musculoskeletal injuries in 2006. That figure was 4.4 percent in 2005 and 4.6 percent in 2004. While the slight decrease might suggest improved ergonomics for some workers, Bryck and others say overall incidence of discomfortif not, perhaps, diagnosed carpal tunnel syndromeis on the rise. One reason the labor statistics don't reflect that is the shift in demographics. Increasingly, younger computer users are complaining of paincollege, high school, and even middle school students.
The ubiquity of laptops that extends down to some of the youngest users reflects an overall industry trend.
"Portable PCs represented 40.1 percent of all PCs sold worldwide in 2007," says Michael Shirer of the research firm IDC. That makes them hardly peripheral to the overall PC market, which is where they entered the playing fieldintended for occasional use that complemented a desktop machine.
You don't have to work in pain
Importantly, pain and conditions such as carpal tunnel are not inevitable results of notebook computer useat any age. Occupational therapist Gail Hegeman of Pioneer Ergonomics in western Massachusetts says as more people in their 20s find their way to heroften because of acute non-computer-use injuries, she's astonished at their attitude toward pain.
"They almost act as if it's normal" to experience pain from using their computers, she says. "They say to me, `oh, well, I just work in pain.'" It doesn't have to be that way.
A variety of proactive measures can help prevent pain, and are also recommended for pain relief.
First and foremost, whenever possible plug an external mouse or trackball and keyboard into your laptop. In particular, if you have a regular space where you most often work, make sure that it allows for you to elevate your laptop to a comfortable height while attaching a mouse and keyboard below.
You've heard it before but it's important: take frequent breaks. Set a timer or download some software, Hegeman says. Every 20-30 minutes you should get up and gently stretch. Hegeman also says that some of the ergonomic "rules" you may remember haven't held up over time. The 90-degree angle at the hip, for example, which got wide publicity for years, is no longer rigid.
"Leaning back a little is now considered to be fine," she says. If you're comfortable sitting ramrod straight, that's great. But if not, adjusting your chair slightly to a create a more open hip angle may be better for you. But dont follow suit with the elbows, she cautions.
"I'm a big believer in the 90-degree elbow joint angle," she says. "I've seen so many repetitive strain injuries from people who put their elbow straight, who lean back in their chair."
Leaning back in a chair may seem minor compared to how some people compute these days. Stretched out on the bed, lounging on the couch or even lying flat on the floor all have become not unusual positions for laptop use, especially among young adults and teenagers.
Bryck says being aware of how you're positioned and what that does to your body is an important step toward improvement.
"For me, the best way to check in on the way you're standing, the way you're sitting, the way you're inhabiting your body, is to check in on your breathing," she says. Is your rib cage free to expand and fall? Are your shoulders and neck relaxed so your head feels like it's floating? Do you have a natural lumbar curve? "To me, that's the main check-in point. If you do that, everything is going to fall in place."