Secure Programming: the Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: Page 6

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The Seven Pernicious Kingdoms

Throughout the book, we refer to the Seven Pernicious Kingdoms, a taxonomy created by Tsipenyuk, Chess, and McGraw [Tsipenyuk, Chess, McGraw, 2005]. The term kingdom is used as biologists use it in their taxonomy of living organisms: to indicate a high-level grouping of similar members. The Seven Pernicious Kingdoms are listed here:

1. Input Validation and Representation

2. API Abuse

3. Security Features

4. Time and State

5. Error Handling

6. Code Quality

7. Encapsulation

* Environment

(Note that there are actually eight kingdoms, with the eighth referring to the influence of outside factors, such as the environment, on the code.)

In our experience, this classification works well for describing both generic defects and context-specific defects. The ordering of kingdoms gives an estimate of their relative importance. McGraw discusses the Seven Pernicious Kingdoms in detail in Software Security [McGraw, 2006], and the complete taxonomy is available on the Web at http://vulncat.fortify.com; we include a brief overview here to lay out the terminology we use throughout the book.

1. Input Validation and Representation Input validation and representation problems are caused by metacharacters, alternate encodings, and numeric representations. Security problems result from trusting input. The issues include buffer overflow, cross-site scripting, SQL injection, and many others. Problems related to input validation and representation are the most prevalent and the most dangerous category of security defects in software today. As a consequence, Chapter 5, “Handling Input,” is dedicated solely to matters of handling input, and input validation and representation play a significant role in the discussion of buffer overflow (Chapters 6 and 7), the Web (Chapter 9), and XML and Web Services (Chapter 10, “XML and Web Services”).

2. API Abuse

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An API is a contract between a caller and a callee. The most common forms of API abuse are caused by the caller failing to honor its end of this contract. For example, if a program fails to call chdir() after calling chroot(), it violates the contract that specifies how to change the active root directory in a secure fashion. We discuss this and other APIs related to privilege management in Chapter 12, “Privileged Programs.” Another example of abuse is relying upon a DNS lookup function to return reliable identity information. In this case, the caller abuses the callee API by making an assumption about its behavior (that the return value can be used for authentication purposes). See Chapter 5 for more. The caller-callee contract can also be violated from the other side. For example, if a Java class extends -java.util.Random and returns nonrandom values, the contract is violated. (We discuss random numbers in Chapter 11, “Privacy and Secrets.”)

3. Security Features Even though software security is much more than just security features, it’s important to get the security features right. Here we’re concerned with topics such as authentication, access control, confidentiality, cryptography, and privilege management. Hard-coding a database password in source code is an example of a security feature (authentication) gone wrong. We look at problems related to managing these kinds of passwords in Chapter 11. Leaking confidential data between system users is another example (also discussed in Chapter 11). The topic of writing privileged programs gets a chapter of its own (Chapter 12).

4. Time and State To maintain their sanity, programmers like to think of their code as being executed in an orderly, uninterrupted, and linear fashion. Multitasking operating systems running on multicore, multi-CPU, or distributed machines don’t play by these rules—they juggle multiple users and multiple threads of control. Defects rush to fill the gap between the programmer’s model of how a program executes and what happens in reality. These defects are caused by unexpected interactions between threads, processes, time, and data. These interactions happen through shared state: semaphores, variables, the file system, and anything that can store information. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) such as World of Warcraft often contain time and state vulnerabilities because they allow hundreds or thousands of distributed users to interact simultaneously [Hoglund and McGraw, 2007]. The lag time between an event and the bookkeeping for the event sometimes leaves room for cheaters to duplicate gold pieces, cheat death, or otherwise gain an unfair advantage. Time and state is a topic throughout the book. For example, Chapter 5 points out that interrupts are input too, and Chapter 11 looks at race conditions in Java Servlets.

5. Error Handling Errors and error handling represent a class of API, but problems related to error handling are so common that they deserve a kingdom of their own. As with API abuse, there are two ways to introduce an error-related security vulnerability. The first (and most common) is to handle errors poorly or not at all. The second is to produce errors that either reveal too much or are difficult to handle safely. Chapter 8, “Errors and Exceptions,” focuses on the way error handling mishaps create ideal conditions for security problems.

6. Code Quality Poor code quality leads to unpredictable behavior. From a user’s perspective, this often manifests itself as poor usability. For an attacker, it provides an opportunity to stress the system in unexpected ways. -Dereferencing a null pointer or entering an infinite loop could enable a denial-of-service attack, but it could also create the conditions necessary for an attacker to take advantage of some poorly thought-out error handling code. Good software security and good code quality are inexorably intertwined.

7. Encapsulation Encapsulation is about drawing strong boundaries. In a Web browser, that might mean ensuring that your mobile code cannot be abused by other mobile code. On the server, it might mean differentiation between validated data and unvalidated data (see the discussion of trust boundaries in Chapter 5), between one user’s data and another’s (privacy, discussed in Chapter 11), or between data that users are allowed to see and data that they are not (privilege, discussed in Chapter 12).

* Environment This kingdom includes everything that is outside the source code but is still critical to the security of the product being created. Because the issues covered by this kingdom are not directly related to source code, we have separated it from the rest of the kingdoms. The configuration files that govern the program’s behavior and the compiler flags used to build the program are two examples of the environment influencing software security. Configuration comes up in our discussion of Web applications (Chapter 9) and Web Services (Chapter 10).

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