| October 1999 |
Manage outsourced projects
The new process management tools won't do your job for you, but they can make it easier
This is true for any project, but particularly for outsourced ones. Widely separated work spaces for users, developers and support staff, different e-mail systems and, in the case of offshore developers, different languages and cultures, mean that you have two tough decisions to make at the assignment's outset. One is about the effectiveness of project communications: are your current tools enough, or do you need better ones with greater capabilities?
The other decision regards project management processes and tools. For large-scale and outsourced projects, you'll need a project plan containing a list of baseline requirements; prototypes of UI components and output deliverables; and Gannt and project charts/reports showing milestones, schedules, and resource allotments.
Give toolkits more control
A good project management component doesn't simply contain a detailed version of the plan; it can actively control the project. For large or outsourced projects, a project management component's tracking capability can prove a tremendous asset: its records of milestones, schedules, and resources form the baseline contract with the outsourcer.
And process management toolkits can be quite versatile. They can display in condensed format or in full details, in tables or customized reports. A wide range of charts and diagrams can provide precise snapshots of where a project is and where it's goingand then deliver these messages by mail, print or Web. Think of the new project software as process management toolkits designed for this express purpose.
The majority of crucial risk factors for IT projects involve not having project schedules and resources or tracking them adequately. As someone who is expected to track project schedules and perform ongoing risk assessments, you'll have to draw from project templates and process estimators. The scoping stage is critical to identifying risky phases within the projectan implicit part of your troubleshooter mandate.
Information is power. If the members of your team see you as instrumental in keeping project schedules and information timely, your implicit authority and power will only grow as the project unfolds.
Bring in the Web for better communication
Web-based report delivery is vital to project communications, especially across corporate boundaries in an outsourced project. Indeed, Web delivery has proved so popular and cost-effective that many developers are starting to offer project input such as costs, timesheet and activity alerts and reports through Java or Web front ends.
Most project planning tools are based on server-side databases acting as repositories for plans, schedules, and resource data. This client/server design allows for better integration with ERP and other existing cost and accounting systems, eliminating one major defect of desktop project plannerspoor integration, which forces redundant and error-prone time/cost data entry. At the same time, the basic underpinning for multi-project and multi-resource scheduling has been put in place.
You've got the toolsnow use them
In this era of technical and managerial staff shortages, you'll likely encounter situations where you have to act as system liaison or coordinator between internal clients and outsourcers or consultants. And if you're really "lucky," the position will turn out to be one of great responsibility with no authority: plain old project troubleshooter, also known as flak-catcher.
As someone who wants to sleep at night and retain some semblance of sanity, you want to be armed and perceived as competent if not dangerous. You need to understand the risks and the leveragesthe control points that you have available for helping to keep the project on course. As the project unfolds, your role will change from planner to business process mentor to scheduler to troubleshooter to project champion. But throughout the project you should retain one consistent role: honest broker.
As honest broker, you provide information on a range of issues: what's coming next, which users are authorities on different aspects of the project, when the next phase can realistically start up, and so on. You will not only be the contact point for getting consultants and users together, but will also be expected to keep abreast of the latest project status information. Because you will be constantly coordinating and scheduling the use of organizational manpower (when you're not standing in for it), resource management is going to a big part of your game.
Not to give away the surprise, but you'll need to determine two things the moment your assignment falls in your lap. First, find out who's responsible for setting up project e-mail/exception reporting and process management software. Second, find out who's responsible for running it. The answers can determine whether you want to take on the assignment.
CMM won't really help you
The Software Engineering Institute estimates that nearly 70 percent of IT groups are not at CMM (Capability Maturity Model) level 2they don't have tools and processes in place to repeat past successes or avoid past failures. So in dealing with outsourcers, assume their CMM level is abysmal at best. Don't bother asking what level they're at; instead, ask some of their developers a few questions. What processes and tools are in place for handling defects and change requests? What quality assurance and testing tools do they use? This information, along with the people assigned to your project, will give you the best assessment of the quality of the outsourcing team.
At the same time, keep in mind that often it's your own IT members and organizational staffers who are a part of the problem. Nonetheless, you are the project's champion and facilitator. So while you're waving the pompoms for your outsourcers, be sure to root for the home team as well.
Combat risks with ample preparation
So here's another, even more interesting law of IT: the smaller the development team, the more likely the success of the project. In Software Project Survival Guide, Steve McConnell multiplies the chance of project success by 50 percent if there are three or fewer full-time developers assigned to a project. The idea falls neatly in line with the famous Brooks Corollary: neither adding people nor control processes to an out-of-control project will bring it under control.
Keep these observations in mind when considering the following IT project risk factors:
Of course like every family, every project is unhappy in its own unique ways. But as a project moves from requirements to detail design, assessing the risks and identifying the unresolved defects are crucial. Planning and control processes should be commensurate with the project's assessed risks. This is your point of opportunity. Be prepared as chief coordinator, troubleshooter, and flak-catcher to insist on having the right processes and tools in place to manage those risks.
It's the vision thing
As one project leader at the PLC (Project Leadership Conference) described it, "if you cannot communicate and sustain the project's vision, the technology doesn't really matter."
Defining and communicating the vision of a doable plan is crucial to IT success. Getting stakeholders on board and moving in the same direction defines how to sustain the vision.
Some people argue that process and project planning systems are dictatorial, imposing their requirements on users. The new tools are flexible in two ways. First, they offer more ways of integrating data from legacy sources or delivering output onto preferred Web, mail or print targets. Second, they can be readily customized to track and deliver as much detail as is required by the inherent risk in that phase of the project. Project management is pragmatic, not dogmatic. Come up to speed with what's available in the new process and project management tools.
|Figure 1. Your project in a nutshell. Tools such as Project Office provide one central source for project and resource information. The view bar offers access to different views on the project, and a timeline appears in both spreadsheet and graphical form. This multiplicity of views helps organizations to optimize their resources across department boundaries. Welcome to the new age of project management, where to-do lists are only the tip of the iceberg.|
|Vendor||Process Components||Additional Features|
| ABT Corporation |
| ABT Planner as planning/estimation tool |
ABT Resources for multi-project resource schedules
ABT Repository for portfolio of project/resources
| Use MS Project or ABT Workbench for front end. |
Provides for workgroup reporting/links via client/server and Web delivery
| Artemis Management Systems |
|KnowledgePLAN for process plans, estimates CostView for project costing and control GlobalView for enterprise multi-project planning||Use MS Project or ProjectView for front end Trackview for time tracking system and reporting Uses server database to handle multiple projects|
| Computer Associates |
|LBMS Process Engineer for process plans, estimates SuperProject/Net for enterprise Web delivery||Realizer for VB-like scripting and integration ODBC connectivity to a variety of datasources|
| Pacific Edge Software |
| Project Office for multi-project plans |
Integrated resource, costing, budgeting views
| Use MS Project for detailed scheduling |
SQL Server as data repository
| Planview Inc |
| Planview Planner for multi-project scoping |
Skill Scheduling for matching resources
| Timesheet and service request tracking |
Use MS Project as front end
Central server database
| Planisware Inc |
| Scheduler with multiple WBS views, estimates |
Simulation/what-if analysis of resource usage
| Scitor or MS Project front end |
Time card tracking and costing subsystems
OPX 2.2 repository as multi-project server
| Primavera Inc |
| Eagle Ray for plans, processes based on best practices |
WBS/OBS/RBS with costing and resource management
| Portfolio Analyst for multi-project decision support |
Java timesheets and Web-based input, delivery
Oracle or SQL Server as multi-project database
| Scitor Inc |
| Scitor Process for simulations and estimates |
Scitor Project Scheduler for plans, resources
| Scitor Project Communicator for time, work management |
Uses more Web-based delivery throughout tools
| Welcom Inc |
| Open Plan for resource scheduling, modeling, and management |
Cobra for cost management through earned value analysis
| Spider: a Web-based project front end |